How OLED Lights Work

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Published on April 03, 2012 with No Comments

The layers of OLED lights including a cathode, emissive layer, emission of radiation, conductive layer and anode. The layer of organic materials is situated between two electrodes, the cathode and anode. All of it is deposited on a substrate and the organic materials are electrically conductive. Organic semiconductors help cause the illumination.

The original basic polymer OLEDs were made of a single layer. Modern OLEDs have a bilayer structure with a conductive layer and emissive layer. The latest OLEDs use hole and electron-transport materials to improve quantum efficiency. When OLED lights operate, voltage is supplied across the OLED. The anode is positive with respect to the cathode and a current or electrons flows through the device.

A vacuum process is used to create efficient OLED lights using small molecules. This is the technology first developed by Dr. Tang at Eastman Kodak. Usually the term OLED refers to these types of devices, though the term SM-OLED is also used.

Polymer light emitting diodes (PLED) are also referred to as light-emitting polymers (LEP). This means OLED lights are emitted when the electroluminescent conductive polymer is connected to an external voltage. A small amount of power is used to produce the light, making polymer OLEDs very efficient. They are usually used as a thin film for color displays and do not use vacuum desposition.

OLED lights are also created by using phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes in an efficient manner. The quantum efficiency of OLED lights using phosphorescent materials is nearly 100 percent. This makes it possible for such OLED lights to have brightness as high as 10,000 cd/M2. They achieve solid state lighting with high brightness and white emission.

Various device architectures and structures are used to get different types of light including bottom or top emission; transparent OLEDs; stacked OLEDs; graded heterojunction and inverted OLED. Patterning technologies determine the patterns of light emitted. Backpane technologies drive pixels properly for use in high resolution displays and AMOLED displays.

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